Lest We Forget - African American Military History by Researcher, 
					Author and Veteran Bennie McRae, Jr.

A TREATY

A Treaty

Cherokee Nation and the Confederate States of America

A TREATY of friendship and alliance made and concluded at Tahlequah, in the
Cherokee Nation, on the seventh day of October, A.D. one thousand eight
hundred and sixty-one, between the Confederate States of America, by Albert
Pike, commissioner with plenary powers, of the Confederate States, of the
one part, and the Cherokee Nation of Indians, by John Ross, the principal
chief, Joseph Verner, assistant principal chief, James Brown, John Drew,
and William P. Ross, executive councilors, constituting, with the principal
and assistant principal chiefs, the executive council of the nation, and
authorized to enter into this treaty by a general convention of the
Cherokee people, held at Tahlequah, the seat of government of the Cherokee
Nation, on the twenty-first day of August, A.D. one thousand eight hundred
and sixty-one; together with Lewis Ross, Thomas Pegg, and Richard Fields,
commissioners selected and appointed by the principal chief with the advice
and consent of the executive council to assist in negotiating the same, of
the other part.

The Congress of the Confederate States of America, having by an "Act for
the protection of certain Indian tribes," approved the twenty-first day of
May, A.D. one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, offered to assume and
accept the protectorate of the several nations and tribes of Indians
occupying the country west of Arkansas and Missouri, and to recognize them
as their wards, subject to all the  rights, privileges and immunities, titles and guaranties with each of said nations and tribes under treaties made with them by the United States of America; and the Cherokee Nation of Indians having assented thereto upon certain terms and conditions:

Now, therefore, the said Confederate States of America, by Albert Pike,
their commissioner, constituted by the President, under authority of the
act of Congress in that behalf, with plenary powers for these purposes, and
the Cherokee Nation, by the principal chief, executive council, and
commissioners aforesaid, has agreed to the following articles, that is to say:

ARTICLE I. There shall be perpetual peace and friendship, and an alliance,
offensive and defensive, between the Confederate States of America and all
of their States and people, and the Cherokee Nation and all the people
thereof.

ART. II. The Cherokee Nation of Indians acknowledges itself to be under the
protection of the Confederate States of America, and of no other power or
sovereign whatever; and does hereby stipulate and agree with them that it
will not hereafter contract any alliance, or enter into any compact,
treaty, or agreement with any individual, State, or with a foreign power;
and the said Confederate States do hereby assume and accept the said
protectorate, and recognize the said Cherokee Nation as their ward; and by
the consent of the said nation now here freely given, the country whereof
it is proprietor in fee, as the same is hereinafter described, is annexed
to the Confederate States in the same manner and to the same extent as it
was annexed to the United States of America before that Government was
dissolved, with such modifications, however, of the terms of annexation,
and upon such conditions as are hereinafter expressed, in addition to all
the rights, privileges, immunities, titles, and guaranties with or in favor
of the said nation, under treaties made with it, and under the statutes of
the United States of America. And in consequence of the obligations imposed
on the Cherokee people by this article, it is agreed on the part of the
Confederate States that they will not at any time enter into any compact,
treaty, or agreement with any individuals or party in the Cherokee Nation,
but only with the constitutional authorities of the same, that will in any
way interfere with or affect any of the national rights of the Cherokee
people.

ART. III. The Confederate States of America, having accepted the said
protectorate, hereby solemnly promise the said Cherokee Nation never to
desert or to abandon it, and that under no circumstances will they permit
the Northern States or any other enemy to overcome them and sever the
Cherokees from the Confederacy; but that they will, at any cost and all
hazards, protect and defend them and maintain unbroken the ties created by
identity of interests and institutions, and strengthened and made perpetual
by this treaty.

ART. IV. The boundaries of the Cherokee country shall forever continue and
remain the same as they are defined by letters patent therefor given by the
United States to the Cherokee Nation on the thirty-first day of December,
A.D. one thousand eight hundred and thirty-eight, which boundaries are
therein defined as follows:
Beginning at a mound of rocks four feet square at base, and four and a half
feet high, from which another mound of rocks bears south one chain, and
another mound of rocks bears west one chain, on what has been denominated
the old western territorial line of Arkansas Territory, twenty-five miles
north of Arkansas River; thence south twenty-one miles and
twenty-eight chains to a post on the northeast bank of the Verdigris River,
from which a hackberry, fifteen inches diameter, bears south sixty-one
degrees thirty-one minutes east, forty-three links, marked C. H. L., and a
cottonwood, forty-two inches diameter, bears south twenty-one degrees
fifteen minutes east, fifty links, marked C. R. R. L.; thence down the
Verdigris River, on the northeast bank, with its meanders to the junction
of Verdigris and Arkansas Rivers; thence from the lower bank of Verdigris
River, on the north bank of Arkansas River, south forty-four degrees
thirteen minutes east, fifty-seven chains, to a post on the south bank of
Arkansas, opposite the eastern bank of Neosho River, at its junction with
Arkansas, from which a red oak, thirty-six inches diameter, bears south
seventy-five degrees forty-five minutes west, twenty-four links, and a
hickory, twenty-four inches diameter, bears south eighty-nine degrees east,
four links; thence south fifty-three degrees west, one mile, to a post from
which a rock bears north fifty-three degrees east, fifty links, and a rock
bears south eighteen degrees eighteen minutes west, fifty links; thence
south eighteen degrees eighteen minutes west, thirty-three miles,
twenty-eight chains and eighty links, to a rock, from which another rock
bears north eighteen degrees eighteen minutes east, fifty links, and
another rock bears south fifty links; thence south four miles to a post on
the lower bank of the North Fork of Canadian River at its junction with
Canadian River, from which a cottonwood, twenty-four inches diameter, bears
north eighteen degrees east, forty links, and a cottonwood, fifteen inches
diameter, bears south nine degrees east, fourteen links; thence down the
Canadian River on its north bank to its junction with Arkansas River;
thence down the main channel of Arkansas River to the western boundary of
the State of Arkansas at the northern extremity of the eastern boundary of
the lands of the Choctaws, on the south bank of Arkansas River, four chains
and fifty-four links east of Fort Smith; thence north seven degrees
twenty-five minutes west with the western boundary of the State of
Arkansas, seventy-six miles sixty-four chains and fifty links, to the
southeast corner of the State of Missouri; thence north on the western
boundary of the State of Missouri eight miles forty-nine chains and fifty
links to the north bank of Cowskin or Seneca River, at a mound six feet
square at base and five feet high, in which is a post marked on the south
side Cor. Ch. Ld.; thence west on the northern boundary of the lands of the
Senecas, eleven miles and forty chains, to a post on the east bank of
Neosho River, from which a maple, eighteen inches diameter, bears south
thirty-one degrees east, seventy-two links; thence up Neosho River, with
its meanders, on the east bank to the southern boundary of Osage lands,
thirty-six chains and fifty links, west of the southeast corner of the
lands of the Osages, witnessed by a mound of rocks on the west bank of
Neosho River; thence west on the southern boundary of the Osage lands to
the line dividing the territory of the United States from that of Mexico,
two hundred and eighty-eight miles thirteen chains and sixty-six links, to
a mound of earth six feet square at base and five and a half feet high, in
which is deposited a cylinder of charcoal twelve inches long and four
inches diameter; thence south along the line of the territory of the United
States and of Mexico, sixty miles and twelve chains, to a mound of earth
six feet square at base and five and a half feet high, in which is
deposited a cylinder of charcoal eighteen inches long and three inches
diameter;  thence east along the northern boundary of Creek
lands, two hundred and seventy-three miles fifty-five chains and sixty-six
links, to the beginning, containing within the survey 13,574,135.14 acres.
ART. V. The Cherokee Nation hereby gives its full, free, and unqualified
assent to those provisions of the act of Congress of the Confederate States
of America entitled "An act for the protection of certain Indian tribes,"
approved the twenty-fourth day of May, A.D. one thousand eight hundred and
sixty-one, whereby it was declared that all reversionary and other
interest, right, title, and proprietorship of the United States in, unto,
and over the Indian country, in which that of the said Cherokee Nation is
included, should pass to and vest in the Confederate States; and whereby
the President of the Confederate States was authorized to take military
possession and occupation of all said country; and whereby all the laws of
the United States, with the exception thereinafter made, applicable to and
in force in said country, and not inconsistent with the letter or spirit of
any treaty stipulations entered into with the Cherokee Nation, were
enacted, continued in force, and declared to be in force in said country as
laws and statutes of the Confederate States: Provided, however, And it is
hereby agreed between the said parties that whatever in the said laws of
the United States contained is or may be contrary to or inconsistent with
any article or provision of this treaty is to be of none effect
henceforward, and shall, upon the ratification hereof, be deemed and taken
to have been repealed and annulled as of the present date, and this assent,
as thus qualified and conditioned, shall relate to and be taken to have
been given upon the said day of the approval of the said act of Congress.

ART. VI. The Confederate States of America do hereby solemnly guarantee to
the Cherokee Nation, to be held by it to its own use and behoof in fee
simple forever, the lands included within the boundaries defined in Article
IV of this treaty; to be held by the people of the Cherokee Nation in
common as they have heretofore been held, if the said nation shall so
please, but with power of making partition thereof and dispositions of
parcels of the same by virtue of laws of said nation duly enacted, and
approved by a majority of the Cherokee people in general convention
assembled; by which partition or sale title in fee simple absolute shall
vest in parceners and purchasers whenever it shall please said nation, of
its own free will and accord and without solicitation from any quarter, to
do so; which solicitation the Confederate States hereby solemnly agree
never to use; and the title and tenure hereby guaranteed to the said nation
is and shall be subject to no other restrictions, reservations, or
conditions whatever than such as are hereinafter specially expressed.

ART. VII. None of the lands hereby guaranteed to the Cherokee Nation shall
be sold, ceded, or otherwise disposed of to any foreign nation or to any
State or government whatever; and in case any such sale, cession, or
disposition should be made without the consent of the Confederate States,
all the said lands shall thereupon revert to the Confederate States.


ART. VIII. The Confederate States of America do hereby solemnly agree and
bind themselves that no State or Territory shall ever pass laws for the
government of the Cherokee Nation; and that no portion of the lands
guaranteed to it shall ever be embraced or included within or annexed to
any Territory or province; nor shall any attempt ever be made, except upon
the free, voluntary, and unsolicited application of said nation, to erect
its said country, by itself or with any  other, into a State or any other territorial or political organization, or to incorporate it into any State previously created.

ART. IX. All navigable streams of the Confederate States and of the Indian
country shall be free to the people of the Cherokee Nation, who shall pay
no higher toll or tonnage duty or other duty than the citizens of the
Confederate States; and the citizens of that nation living upon the
Arkansas River shall have, possess, and enjoy upon that river the same
ferry privileges, to the same extent in all respects, as citizens of the
Confederate States on the opposite side thereof, subject to no other or a
different tax or charge than they.

ART. X. The Cherokee Nation may by act of its legislative authorities
receive and incorporate in the nation as members thereof, or permit to
reside and settle upon the national lands, such Indians of any other nation
or tribe as to it may seem good; and may sell them portions of its land,
and receive to its own use the consideration therefor; and the nation alone
shall determine who are members and citizens of the nation entitled to vote
at elections and share in annuities: Provided, That when persons of another
Indian nation or tribe shall once have been received as members of the
nation, they shall not be disfranchised or subjected to any other
restrictions upon the right of voting than such as shall apply to the
Cherokees themselves. But no Indians not settled in the Cherokee country
shall be permitted to come therein to reside without the consent and
permission of the legislative authority of the nation.

ART. XI. So far as may be compatible with the Constitution of the
Confederate States and with the laws made, enacted, or adopted in
conformity thereto, regulating trade and intercourse with the Indian
tribes, as the same are modified by this treaty, the Cherokee Nation shall
possess the otherwise unrestricted right of self-government and full
jurisdiction, judicial and otherwise, over persons and property within its
limit, excepting only such white persons as are not by birth, adoption, or
otherwise members of the Cherokee Nation; and that there may be no doubt as
to the meaning of this exception, it is hereby declared that every white
person who, having married a Cherokee woman, resides in said Cherokee
country, or who, without inter-marrying, is permanently domiciled therein
with the consent of the authorities of the nation, and votes at elections,
is to be deemed and taken to be a member of the said nation within the true
intent and meaning of this article; and that the exception contained in the
laws for the punishment of offenses committed in the Indian country, to the
effect that they shall not extend or apply to offenses committed by one
Indian against the person or property of another Indian, shall be so
extended and enlarged by virtue of this article, when ratified and without
further legislation, as that none of said laws shall extend and apply to
any offense committed by any Indian, or negro, or mulatto, or by any white
person, so by birth, adoption, or otherwise a member of the Cherokee
Nation, against the person or property of any Indian, negro, or mulatto, or
any such white person, when the same shall be committed within the limits
of the said Cherokee Nation as hereinbefore defined; but all such persons
shall be subject to the laws of the Cherokee Nation, and to prosecution and
trial before its tribunals, and punishment according to such laws, in all
respects like native members of the said nation.

ART. XII. All persons not members of the Cherokee Nation, as such
membership is hereinbefore defined, who may be found in the Cherokee country, shall be considered as intruders, and be removed and kept out of the same either by the civil officers of the nation under the direction of the Executive or Legislature, or by the agent of the Confederate States for the nation, who shall be authorized to demand, if necessary, the aid of the military for that purpose; with the following exceptions only, that is to say: Such individuals with their
families as may be in the employment of the Government of the Confederate
States; all persons peaceably traveling, or temporarily sojourning in the
country, or trading therein under license from the proper authority, and
such persons as may be permitted by the legislative authority of the
Cherokee Nation to reside within its limits without becoming members of the
said nation.

ART. XIII. A tract of two sections of land in the said nation, to be
selected by the President of the Confederate States, or such officer or
person as he may appoint, in conjunction with the authorities of the
Cherokee Nation, at such a point as they may deem most proper, is hereby
ceded to the Confederate States, for the purpose of an agency; and when
selected shall be within their sole and exclusive jurisdiction, except as
to offenses committed therein by one member of the Cherokee Nation against
the person or property of another member of the same: Provided, That
whenever the agency shall be discontinued, the tract so selected therein
shall revert to the said nation, with all the buildings that may be
thereupon: And provided also, That the President, conjointly with the
authorities of the nation, may at any time select, in lieu of said reserve,
any unoccupied tract of land in the nation, and in any other part thereof,
not greater in extent than two sections, as a site for the agency of the
nation, which shall in such case constitute the reserve, and that first
selected shall thereupon revert to the Cherokee Nation.

ART. XIV. The Confederate States shall have the right to build, establish,
and maintain such forts and military posts, temporary or permanent, and
such military and post roads as the President may deem necessary in the
Cherokee country; and the quantity of one mile square of land, including
each fort or post, shall thereby vest as by cession in the Confederate
States and be within their sole and exclusive jurisdiction, except as to
offenses committed therein by members of the Cherokee Nation against the
persons or property of other members of the same, so long as such fort or
post is occupied; but no greater quantity of land beyond one mile square
shall be used or occupied, nor any greater quantity of timber felled than
of each is actually requisite; and if in the establishment of such fort,
post, or road, or of the agency, the property of any individual member of
the Choctaw [Cherokee] Nation, other than land, timber, stone, and earth,
be taken, destroyed, or impaired, just and adequate compensation shall be
made by the Confederate States.

ART. XV. No person shall settle or raise stock within the limits of any
post or fort or of the agency reserve, except such as are or may be in the
employment of the Confederate States in some civil or military capacity, or
such as, being subject to the jurisdiction and laws of the Cherokee Nation,
are permitted by the commanding officer of the fort or post to do so
thereat, or by the agent to do so upon the agency reserve.

ART. XVI. An agent of the Confederate States for the Cherokee Nation and
an interpreter shall continue to be appointed, both of whom shall reside at
the agency. And whenever a vacancy shall occur in either of the said
offices the authorities of the nation shall be consulted as to
the person to be appointed to fill the same, and no one shall be appointed
against whom they in good faith protest, and the agent may be removed on
petition and formal charges preferred by the constituted authorities of the
nation, the President being satisfied, upon full investigation, that there
is sufficient cause for such removal.

ART. XVII. The Confederate States shall protect the Cherokees from hostile
invasion and from aggression by other Indians and white persons not subject
to the laws and jurisdiction of the Cherokee Nation; and for all injuries
resulting from such invasion or aggression full indemnity is hereby
guaranteed to the party or parties injured, out of the Treasury of the
Confederate States, upon the same principle and according to the same rules
upon which white persons are entitled to indemnity for injuries or
aggressions upon them committed by Indians.

ART. XVIII. It is further agreed between the parties that the agent of the
Confederate States, upon the application of the authorities of the Cherokee
Nation, will not only resort to every proper legal remedy, at the expense
of the Confederate States, to prevent intrusion upon the lands of the
Cherokees and to remove dangerous or improper persons, but he shall call
upon the military power if necessary; and to that end all commanders of
military posts in the said country shall be required and directed to afford
him, upon his requisition, whatever aid may be necessary to effect the
purposes of this article.

ART. XIX. If any property of any Cherokees be taken by citizens of the
Confederate States by stealth or force, the agent, on complaint made to him
in due form by affidavit, shall use all proper legal means and remedies in
any State where the offender may be found to regain the property or compel
a just remuneration, and on failure to procure redress payment shall be
made for the loss sustained by the Confederate States upon the report of
the agent, who shall have power to take testimony and examine witnesses in
regard to the wrong done and the extent of the injury.

ART. XX. No person shall be licensed to trade with the Cherokees except by
the agent and with the advice and consent of the National Council. Every
such trader shall execute bond to the Confederate States in such form and
manner as was required by the United States, or as may be required by the
Bureau of Indian Affairs. The authorities of the Cherokee Nation may, by a
general law, duly enacted, levy and collect on all licensed traders in the
nation a tax of not more than one-half of 1 per cent. on all goods, wares,
and merchandise brought by them into the Cherokee country for sale, to be
collected whenever such goods, wares, and merchandise are introduced, and
estimated upon the first cost of the same at the place of purchase, as the
same shall be shown by the copies of the invoices filed with the agent. No
appeal shall hereafter lie from the decision of the agent or council
refusing a license to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, or elsewhere,
except only to the superintendent in case of a refusal by the agent. -And
no license shall be required to authorize any member of the Cherokee Nation
to trade in the Cherokee country, nor to authorize any person to sell
flour, meats, fruits, and other provisions, or stock, wagons, agricultural
implements, or arms brought from any of the Confederate States into the
country, nor shall any tax be levied upon such articles or the proceeds of
the sale thereof. And all other goods, wares, and merchandise exposed to
sale by a person not qualified, without a license, shall be forfeited and
be delivered  and given to the authorities of the nation, as
also shall all wines and liquors illegally introduced.

ART. XXI. All restrictions contained in any treaty made with the United
States, or created by any law or regulation of the United States, upon the
limited right of any member of the Cherokee Nation to sell and dispose of,
to any person whatever, any chattel or other article of personal property,
are hereby removed; and no such restrictions shall hereafter be imposed,
except by their own legislation.

ART. XXII. It is hereby further agreed by the Confederate States that all
the members of the Cherokee Nation, as hereinbefore defined, shall be
henceforward competent to take, hold, and pass, by purchase or descent,
lands in any of the Confederate States, heretofore or hereafter acquired by
them.

ART. XXIII. In order to secure the due enforcement of so much of the laws
of the Confederate States in regard to criminal offenses and misdemeanors
as is or may be in force in the said Cherokee country, and to prevent the
Cherokees from being further harassed by judicial proceedings had in
foreign courts and before juries not of the vicinage, the said country is
hereby erected into and constituted a judicial district, to be called the
Chalahki district, for the special purposes and jurisdiction hereinafter
provided; and there shall be created and semi-annually held, within such
district as Tahlequah, or in case of the removal of the seat of government
of the nation, then at such place as may become the seat of government, a
district court of the Confederate States, with the powers of a circuit
court, so far as the same shall be necessary to carry out the provisions of
this treaty, and with jurisdiction co-extensive with the limits of such
district, in such matters, civil and criminal, to such extent and between
such parties as may be prescribed by law, and in conformity to the terms of
this treaty.

ART. XXIV. In addition to so much and such parts of the acts of Congress of
the United States enacted to regulate trade and intercourse with the Indian
tribes, and to preserve peace on the frontiers as have been re-enacted and
continued in force by the Confederate States, and as are not inconsistent
with the provisions of this treaty, so much of the laws of the Confederate
States as provides for the punishment of crimes amounting to felony at
common law or by statute, against the laws, authority, or treaties of the
Confederate States, and over which the courts of the Confederate States
have jurisdiction, including the counterfeiting the coin of the United
States or of the Confederate States, or the securities of the Confederate
States, and so much of the said laws as provides for punishing violators of
the neutrality laws and resistance to the process of the Confederate
States, and all the acts of the Provisional Congress providing for the
common defense and welfare, so far as the same are not locally
inapplicable, shall hereafter be in force in the Cherokee country, and the
said district court shall have exclusive jurisdiction to try, condemn, and
punish offenders against any such laws, to adjudge and pronounce sentence,
and cause execution thereof to be done in the same manner as is done in any
other district court of the Confederate States.

ART. XXV. The said district court of the Confederate States of America for
the district of Chalahki shall also have the same admiralty jurisdiction as
other district courts of the Confederate courts against any person or
persons residing or found within the district, and in all civil suits at
law or in equity when the matter in controversy  is of greater
value than $500, between a citizen or citizens of any State or States of
the Confederate States or any Territory of the same, or an alien or aliens
and a citizen or citizens of the said district, or person or persons
residing therein; and the Confederate States will, by suitable enactments,
provide for the appointment of a judge and other proper officers of the
said court, the clerk and marshal being members of the Cherokee Nation, and
make all necessary enactments and regulations for the complete
establishment and organization of the same, and to give full effect to its
proceedings and jurisdiction.

ART. XXVI. The said district court shall have no jurisdiction to try and
punish any person for any offense committed prior to the day of the signing
of this treaty; nor shall any action in law or equity be maintained
therein, except by the Confederate States or one of them, when the cause of
action shall have accrued before the same day of the signing hereof.

ART. XXVII. If any citizen of the Confederate States or any other person,
not being permitted to do so by the authorities of said nation or
authorized by the terms of this treaty, shall attempt to settle upon any
lands of the Cherokee Nation, he shall forfeit the protection of the
Confederate States, and such punishment may be inflicted upon him, not
being cruel, unusual, or excessive, as may have been previously prescribed
by law of the nation.

ART. XXVIII. No citizen or inhabitant of the Confederate States shall
pasture stock on the lands of the Cherokee Nation, under the penalty of $1
per head for all so pastured, to be collected by the authorities of the
nation; but their citizens shall be at liberty at all times, and whether
for business or pleasure, peaceably to travel the Cherokee country, and to
drive their stock to market or otherwise through the same, and to halt such
reasonable time on the way as may be necessary to recruit their stock, such
delay being in good faith for that purpose.

ART. XXIX. It is also further agreed that the members of the Cherokee
Nation shall have the same right of traveling, driving stock, and halting
to recruit the same in any of the Confederate States as is given citizens
of the Confederate States by the preceding article.

ART. XXX. If any person hired or employed by the agent or by any other
person whatever, within the agency reserve, or any post or fort, shall
violate the laws of the nation in such manner as to become an unfit person
to continue in the Cherokee country, he or she shall be removed by the
superintendent upon the application of the Executive of the nation, the
superintendent being satisfied of the truth and sufficiency of the charges
preferred.

ART. XXXI. Any person duly charged with a criminal offense against the laws
of either the Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, or Chickasaw Nations, and escaping
into the jurisdiction of the Cherokee Nation, shall be promptly surrendered
upon the demand of the proper authority of the nation within whose
jurisdiction the offense shall be alleged to have been committed; and in
like manner any person duly charged with a criminal offense against the
laws of the Cherokee Nation, and escaping into the jurisdiction of either
of the said nations, shall be promptly surrendered upon the demand of the
proper authority of the Cherokee Nation.

ART. XXXII. The Cherokee Nation shall promptly apprehend and deliver up all
persons duly charged with any crime against the laws  of the
Confederate States, or of any State thereof who may be found within its
limits, on demand of any proper officer of the State or of the Confederate
States; and in like manner any person duly charged with a criminal offense
against the laws of the Cherokee Nation, and escaping into the jurisdiction
of a State, shall be promptly surrendered, on demand of the Executive of
the nation.

ART. XXXIII. Whenever any person who is a member of the Cherokee Nation
shall be indicted for any offense in any court of the Confederate States,
or of a State, he shall be entitled, as of common right, to subpoena, and,
if necessary, to compulsory process for all such witnesses in his behalf as
his counsel may think necessary for his defense; and the cost of process
for such witnesses and of service thereof, and the fees and mileage of such
witnesses shall be paid by the Confederate States, being afterward made, if
practicable, in case of conviction, of the property of the accused. And
whenever the accused is not able to employ counsel the court shall assign
him one experienced counsel for his defense, who shall be paid by the
Confederate States a reasonable compensation for his services, to be fixed
by the court, and paid upon the certificate of the judge.

ART. XXXIV. The provisions of all such acts of the Congress of the
Confederate States as may now be in force, or as may hereafter be enacted,
for the purpose of carrying into effect the provisions of the Constitution
in regard to the redelivery or return of fugitive slaves, or fugitives from
labor and service, shall extend to and be in full force within the said
Cherokee Nation; and shall also apply to all cases of escape of fugitive
slaves from the said Cherokee Nation into any other Indian nation, or into
one of the Confederate States; the obligation upon each such nation or
State to redeliver such slaves being in every case as complete as if they
had escaped from another State and the mode of procedure the same.

ART. XXXV. All persons who are members of the Cherokee Nation shall
hereafter be competent as witnesses in all cases, civil and criminal, in
the courts of the Confederate States, unless rendered incompetent from some
other cause than their Indian blood or descent.

ART. XXXVI. The official acts of all judicial officers in the said nation
shall have the same effect and be entitled to the like faith and credit
everywhere as the like acts of judicial officers of the same grade and
jurisdiction in any of the Confederate States; and the proceedings of the
courts and tribunals of the said nation and copies of the laws and judicial
and other records of the said nation shall be authenticated like similar
proceedings of the courts of the Confederate States, and the laws and
office records of the same, and be entitled to like faith and credit.

ART. XXXVII. It is hereby declared and agreed that the institution of
slavery in the said nation is legal and has existed from time immemorial;
that slaves are taken and esteemed to be personal property; that the title
to slaves and other property having its origin in the said nation shall be
determined by the laws and customs thereof, and that the slaves and other
personal property of every person domiciled in said nation shall pass and
be distributed at his or her death in accordance with the laws, usages, and
customs of the said nation, which may be proved like foreign laws, usages,
and customs, and shall everywhere be held binding within the scope of their
operations.

ART. XXXVIII. No ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of
contracts, shall ever be enacted by the legislative authority of
the Cherokee Nation; nor shall any citizen of the Confederate
States, or member of any other Indian [nation], or tribe, be disseized of
his property or deprived or restrained of his liberty, or fine, penalty, or
forfeiture be imposed on him in the said country, except by the law of the
land, nor without due process of law; nor shall any such citizen be in any
way deprived of any of the rights guaranteed to all citizens by the
Constitution of the Confederate States.

ART. XXXIX. It is further agreed that the Congress of the Confederate
States shall establish and maintain post-offices at the most important
places in the Cherokee Nation, and cause the mails to be regularly carried,
at reasonable intervals, to and from the same, at the same rates of postage
and in the same manner as in the Confederate States; and the postmasters
shall be appointed from among the citizens of the Cherokee Nation.

ART. XL. In consideration of the common interest of the Cherokee Nation and
the Confederate States, and of the protection and rights guaranteed to the
said nation by this treaty, the Cherokee Nation hereby agrees that it will
raise and furnish a regiment of ten companies of mounted men, with two
reserve companies, if allowed, to serve in the armies of the Confederate
States for twelve months; the men shall be armed by the Confederate States,
receive the same pay and allowances as other mounted troops in the service,
and not be moved beyond the limits of the Indian country west of Arkansas
without their consent.

ART. XLI. The Cherokee Nation hereby agrees to raise and furnish, at any
future time, upon the requisition of the President, such number of troops
for the defense of the Indian country, and of the frontier of the
Confederate States, as he may fix, not out of fair proportion to the number
of its population, to be employed for such terms of service as the
President may determine; and such troops shall receive the same pay and
allowances as other troops of the same class in the service of the
Confederate States.

ART. XLII. It is further agreed by the said Confederate States, that the
said Cherokee Nation shall never be required or called upon to pay, in land
or otherwise, any part of the expenses of the present war, or of any war
waged by or against the Confederate States.

ART. XLIII. It is further agreed that after the restoration of peace the
Government of the Confederate States will defend the frontiers of the
Indian country, of which the Cherokee country is a part, and hold the forts
and posts therein, with native troops, recruited among the several Indian
nations included therein, under the command of officers of the Confederate
States, in preference to other troops.

ART. XLIV. In order to enable the Cherokee Nation to claim its rights and
secure its interests without the intervention of counsel or agents, it
shall be entitled to a Delegate to the House of Representatives of the
Confederate States of America, who shall serve for the term of two years,
and be a native-born citizen of the Cherokee Nation, over twenty-one years
of age, and' laboring under no legal disability by the law of the said
nation; and each Delegate shall be entitled to the same rights and
privileges as may be enjoyed by Delegates from any Territories of the
Confederate States to the said House of Representatives. Each shall receive
such pay and mileage as shall be fixed by the Congress of the Confederate
States. The first election for Delegate shall be held at such time and
places, and shall be conducted in such manner as shall be prescribed by the
principal chief of the Cherokee Nation, to whom returns of such
election shall be made, and who shall declare the person having the
greatest number of votes to be duly elected, and give him a certificate of
election accordingly, which shall entitle him to his seat. For all
subsequent elections, the time, places, and manner of holding them, and
ascertaining and certifying the result, shall be prescribed by the
Confederate States.

ART. XLV. It is hereby ascertained and agreed between the parties to this
treaty, that the United States of America, of which the Confederate States
of America were heretofore a part, were, before the separation, indebted,
and still continue to be indebted, to the Cherokee Nation, and bound to the
punctual payment to them of the following sums annually on the first day
of- in each year, that is to say: It was agreed by the tenth article of the
treaty of the twenty-ninth day of December, A.D. one thousand eight hundred
and thirty-five, that the sum of $200,000 should be invested by the the
President of the United States, in some safe and most productive public
stocks of the country, for the benefit of the whole Cherokee Nation, in
addition to the annuities of the nation theretofore payable, to constitute
a permanent general fund, and that the net income of the same should be
paid over by the President annually to such person or persons as should be
authorized or appointed by the Cherokee Nation to receive the same, whose
receipt should be a full discharge for the amount paid to them, the same
interest to be applied annually by the council of the nation to such
purposes as they might deem best for the general interests of their people;
and it was agreed by the eleventh article of the same treaty that the
permanent annuity of $10,000 of the Cherokee Nation should be commuted for
the sum of $214,000, and that the same should be invested by the President
of the United States as a part of the said general fund of the nation,
which thus became $414,000. And it was agreed by the tenth article of the
same treaty that the President of the United States should invest in some
safe and most productive public stocks of the country the further sum of
$50,000, to constitute a permanent orphan's fund; and that he should pay
over the net income of the same annually to such person or persons as
should be authorized or appointed by the Cherokee Nation to receive the
same, whose receipt should be a full discharge for the amount paid to them;
which net annual income should be expended toward the support and education
of such orphan children of the Cherokees as might be destitute of the means
of subsistence. And it was agreed by the tenth article of the same treaty
that the further sum of $150,000 should be invested by the President of the
United States in some safe and most productive public stocks of the country
for the benefit of the whole Cherokee Nation, which should constitute, in
addition to the existing school fund of the nation, a permanent school
fund, the net income whereof the President should pay over annually to such
person or persons as should be authorized or appointed by the Cherokee
Nation to receive the same, whose receipt should be a full discharge for
the amount paid to them; and that the interest should be applied annually
by the council of the nation for the support of common schools and such a
literary institution of a higher order as might be established in the
Cherokee country; and it was estimated by the eleventh article of the same
treaty that the then existing school fund of the nation amounted to about
$50,000, which, it was thereby agreed, should constitute a part of the
permanent school fund aforesaid. And it is also further  agreed
between the said parties to this treaty that the United States of America,
while the said Confederate States were States of the said United States,
did invest the whole of the said several principal sums of money, except
the sum of $5,000, in stocks of the States hereinafter named, and of the
United States, to the amount hereinafter named in each, that is to say:
THE PERMANENT GENERAL FUND OF THE NATION.

In 7 per cent. stock of the State of Florida, $7,000;
In 6 per cent. stock of the State of Georgia, $1,500;
In 5 per cent. stock of the State of Kentucky, $94,000;
In 6 per cent. stock of the State of Louisiana, $7,000;
In 6 per cent. stock of the State of Maryland, $761.39;
In 6 per cent. stock of the State of Missouri, $50,000;
In 6 per cent. stock of the State of North Carolina, $20,000;
In 6 per cent. stock of the State of South Carolina, $117,000;
In 5 per cent. stock of the State of Tennessee, $125,000;
In 6 per cent. stock of the State of Tennessee, $5,000, and
In 6 per cent. stock of the State of Virginia, $90,000.
Making the whole capital so invested $517,261.39, the net annual income
whereof was and is $28,914.91.

THE PERMANENT ORPHAN FUND.
In 6 per cent. stock of the State of Virginia, $45,000.
The net annual income whereof was and is $9,700, leaving the sum of $5,000
uninvested, and which still so remains.

THE PERMANENT SCHOOL FUND.
In 7 per cent. stock of the State of Florida, $7,000;
In 6 per cent. stock of the State of Louisiana, $2,000;
In 53 per cent. stock of the State of Missouri, $10,000;
In 6 per cent. stock of the State of Missouri, $5,000;
In 6 per cent. stock of the State of North Carolina, $21,000;
In 5 per cent. stock of the State of Pennsylvania, $4,000;
In 6 per cent. stock of the State of South Carolina, $1,000;
In 6 per cent. stock of the State of Tennessee, $7,000;
In the United States 6 per cent. loan of 1847, $5,800, and
In 6 per cent. stock of the State of Virginia, $135,000.

Making the whole capital so invested, of the said permanent school fund,
$197,800, the net annual income whereof was and is $11,848.
All of which stocks the said United States now and do still continue to
hold, or ought to have, in their hands.
And it is also hereby ascertained and agreed between the parties to this
treaty that there will be due to the Cherokee Nation on the first day of
January, A.D. one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, for and on account
of the said annually accruing interest on the said principal sums, and of
arrearages thereof, the sum of $65,644.36, as follows, that is to say:
For the installments of interest on the permanent general fund, as
invested, for July, 1860, and January and July, 1861, $43,379.36;
For the installments of interest on the permanent orphan fund, as invested
and uninvested, for July, 1860, and January and July, 1861, $4,500;
For the installments of interest on the permanent school fund, as invested,
for July, 1860, and January and July, 1861, $17,772.
And it not being desired by the Confederate States that the Cherokee Nation
should continue to receive these annual sums of interest or the said
arrearages from the Government of the United States, or otherwise have any
further connection with that Government; therefore the said Confederate
States of America do hereby assume the payment for the future of the annual
interest on the said sum of $5,000, part of the permanent orphan fund,
which was never invested, and on so much and such parts of said principal
sums as, having once been invested, may now be in the hands of the United
States uninvested; and also of the annual interest on so much and such
parts of the said several principal sums as may have been invested in
stocks of the United States or in the bonds or stocks of any of the States
other than the said Confederate States; and do agree and bind themselves
regularly and punctually hereafter, on the first day of July in each and
every year, to pay the same; and they do also agree and bind themselves to
pay to the treasurer of the Cherokee Nation, immediately upon the complete
ratification of this treaty, the said sum of $65,644.36 for such interest
and arrearages now due and which will be due on the first day of January,
A. D. one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, as are above stated.
And the said Confederate States of America do hereby assume the duty and
obligation of collecting and paying over as trustees to the said Cherokee
Nation all sums of money not hereby agreed to be assumed and paid by them,
accruing whether from interest or capital of the bonds of the several
States of the Confederacy now held by the Government of the United States
as trustee for the Cherokee Nation, and the said interest and capital, as
collected, shall be paid over to the said Cherokee Nation.

And the said Confederate States will request the several States of the
Confederacy whose bonds are so held to provide by legislation or otherwise
that the capital and interest of such bonds shall not be paid to the
Government of the United States, but to the Government of the Confederate
States in trust for the said Cherokee Nation.
And the said Confederate States of America do hereby guarantee to the said
Cherokee Nation the final settlement and full payment upon and after the
restoration of peace and recognition of their independence as of debts in
good faith and conscience, as well as in law, due and owing on good and
valuable consideration, by the said Confederate States and other of the
United States jointly before the secession of any of the States, of any and
all parts of the said several principal sums of money which may have
remained uninvested in the hands of the United States, or which may have
been again received by them after investment and may now be held by them;
and do also guarantee to the said Cherokee Nation the final settlement and
full payment, at the same period, of the capital of any and all bonds or
stocks of any State not a member of the Confederacy and of any and all
stocks of the United States in which any of the Cherokee funds may have
been invested.

ART. XLVI. All the said annual payments of interest and the arrearages
shall be applied under the exclusive direction of the legislative authority
of the Cherokee Nation, to the support of their Government, to the purposes
of education, to the maintenance of orphans, and to such other objects for
the promotion and advancement of the improvement, welfare, and happiness of
the Cherokee people and their descendants as shall to the Legislature seem
good, the same being in accordance with treaty stipulations and maintaining
unimpaired the good faith of the Cherokee Nation to those
persons and in regard to those objects for whom and which it has become
trustee. And the capital sums aforesaid shall be invested or reinvested
with any other moneys hereby guaranteed, after the restoration of peace, in
stocks of the States of the Confederacy, at their market price, and in such
as bear the highest rate of interest, or shall be paid over to the Cherokee
Nation after reasonable notice, to be invested by its authorities as its
legislature may request. And no department or officer of the Government of
the Confederate States shall hereafter have power to impose any conditions,
limitations, or restrictions on the payment to the said nation of any [of]
said annual sums of interest, or of any arrearages, or in any wise to
control or direct the mode in which such moneys when received by the
authorities of the nation shall be disposed of or expended.

ART. XLVII. Whereas, by the treaty of the twenty-ninth day of December,
A.D. one thousand eight hundred and thirty-five, the United States of
America in consideration of the sum of $500,000, part of the sum of
$5,000,000 agreed by that treaty to be paid to the Cherokee Nation for the
cession of all their lands and possessions east of the Mississippi River,
did covenant and agree to convey to the Cherokees and their descendants by
patent in fee simple the certain tract of land between the State of
Missouri and the Osage Reservation, the boundary line whereof it was
provided should begin at the southeast corner of the said Osage Reservation
and run north along the east line of the Osage lands fifty miles to the
northeast corner thereof; thence east to the west line of the State of
Missouri; thence with that line south fifty miles, and thence west to the
place of beginning, which tract of country was estimated to contain 800,000
acres of land; and
Whereas, the same has been seized and settled upon by lawless intruders
from the Northern States, and may become totally lost to the Cherokees:

Now, therefore, it is further hereby agreed between the parties to this
treaty that in case the said tract of country should be ultimately lost to
the Cherokees by the chances of war, or the terms of a treaty of peace or
otherwise, the Confederate States of America do assure and guarantee to the
Cherokee Nation the payment therefor of the said sum of $500,000, with
interest thereon at the rate of 5 per cent. per annum from the said
twenty-ninth day of December, A.D. one thousand eight hundred and
thirty-five, and will either procure the payment of the same by the United
States or pay the same out of their own Treasury after the restoration of
peace.

ART. XLVIII. At the request of the authorities of the Cherokee Nation, and
in consideration of the unanimity and promptness of their people in
responding to the call of the Confederate States for troops, and of their
want of means to engage in any works of public utility and general benefit,
or to maintain in successful operation their male and female seminaries of
learning, the Confederate States do hereby agree to advance to the said
Cherokee Nation immediately after the ratification of this treaty on
account of the said sum to be paid for the said lands mentioned in the
preceding article the sum of $150,000, to be paid to the treasurer of the
nation and appropriated in such manner as the Legislature may direct; and
to hold in their hands as invested for the benefit of the said nation the
further sum of $50,000, and to pay to the treasurer of said nation interest
thereon annually on the 1st day of July in each year, at the rate of 6 per
cent.  per annum, which shall be sacredly devoted to the support
of the said two seminaries of learning, and to no other purpose whatever.

ART. XLIX. It is further ascertained and agreed by and between the
Confederate States and the Cherokee Nation that the treaty of the sixth day
of August, A. D. one thousand eight hundred and forty-six, was negotiated
and concluded with the United States by three several parties; that is to
say, the Cherokee Nation by delegates appointed by its constituted
authorities, that portion of the nation known as "the treaty party," being
those who made and those who agreed to the treaty of the year one thousand
eight hundred and thirty-five, and "the Western Cherokees" or" Old
Settlers," being those who had removed west prior to the date of that
treaty and were then residing there; that the said three parties, by their
delegates, after the making of the said treaty of the year one thousand
eight hundred and forty-six borrowed from Corcoran & Riggs, bankers in the
city of Washington, the sum of $60,000 upon agreement indorsed by the
Secretary of War, by which the same was to be repaid with interest when the
moneys payable under said treaty should be appropriated, as follows, that
is to say: $25,000 by the treaty party, $90,000 by the Western Cherokees or
Old Settler party, and $15,000 by the Cherokee Nation; that at the session
of Congress next after the making of that treaty the sum of $97,000 for the
Cherokee Nation was appropriated under the eighth article of the same, and
the sum of $100,000 under the sixth article for the treaty party; but no
appropriation was made for the Western Cherokees or Old Settler party under
the fourth article (whereunder only any moneys were payable to them), the
amount due them, and which was to be wholly paid per capita under that
article, not having as yet been ascertained; that consequently the sum
borrowed as aforesaid, with the accrued interest, was repaid out of the two
appropriations aforesaid, one-half of the principal and interest which
should have been paid by the Western Cherokees or Old Settler party being
deducted from and paid out of the appropriation made for each of the
others; and there being thus paid out of the moneys so appropriated under
the eighth article for various purposes for the whole nation over and above
its proportion the sum of $10,300, and out of the moneys appropriated under
the sixth article for those of the treaty party who had sustained losses
and damage in consequence of the treaty of the year one thousand eight
hundred and thirty-five, over and above the proportion of that party, a
like sum of $10,300; that when afterward the amount ascertained to be due
to the Western Cherokees or Old Settlers, under the fourth article, was
appropriated, the whole amount was paid to and distributed among them per
capita, and no part of the sum so advanced for them out of the other and
previous appropriations was reserved, nor has any part thereof whatever
hitherto been reimbursed to those entitled to receive the same by the
Western Cherokees or by the United States, or otherwise howsoever--
Therefore, it is further hereby agreed that the Confederate States will
pay, upon the ratification of this treaty, to the Cherokee Nation the sum
of $10,300; and will also appropriate and place in the hands of the agent
for the Cherokees the further sum of $10,300, to be distributed among the
claimants of the treaty party, provided for by the sixth article of the
said treaty, or their legal representatives under the laws of the nation,
in such proportions as it shall be certified to him by Stand Watie, the
only surviving member of the committee  of five appointed under
that article to audit such claims, that it ought, in accordance with the
allowances made by the committee, to be distributed among them.

And it was agreed by the said eighth article of the said treaty of the
year one thousand eight hundred and forty-six that of the sum of $27,000,
provided thereby to be paid to the Cherokee Nation, the sum of $5,000
should be equally divided among all those whose arms were taken from them
previous to their removal west, by order of an officer of the United
States, and of that sum of $5,000, $3,300 was applied to the payment in
part of the proportion of the money borrowed as aforesaid, due by the
Western Cherokees or Old Settler party; and as the authorities of the
nation declined to receive the residue of said sum of $5,000, it being but
$1,700, and that residue never was paid by the United States, and still
remains due by them--
Therefore, it is hereby further agreed that the Confederate States will
also pay, upon the ratification of this treaty, to the treasurer of the
Cherokee Nation, the further sum of $1,700, making, with the said sum of
$10,300, the sum of $12,000; and that out of the same the sum of $5,000
shall, by the authorities of the nation, be distributed among those persons
and their legal representatives whose arms were taken from them as
aforesaid; and that any part of that sum finally remaining undistributed,
together with the residue of $7,000, shall be used and appropriated in such
manner as the national council shall direct.

ART. L. It is hereby further agreed that all claims and demands against the
Government of the United States in favor of the Cherokee Nation or any part
thereof, or of any individuals thereof, and which have not been satisfied,
released, or relinquished, arising or accruing under former treaties, shall
be investigated upon the restoration of peace, and be paid by the
Confederate States, which do hereby take the place of the United States and
assume their obligations in that regard.

ART. LI. It is further agreed between the parties that all provisions of
the treaties of the Cherokee Nation with the United States, which secure or
guarantee to the Cherokee Nation or individuals thereof any rights or
privileges whatever, and the place whereof is not supplied by, and which
are not contrary to, the provisions of this treaty, and so far as the same
are not obsolete or unnecessary, or repealed, annulled, changed, or
modified by subsequent treaties or laws, or by this treaty, are and shall
be continued in force, as if made with the Confederate States.

ART. LII. In further evidence of the desire of the Confederate States to
advance the individual interests of the Cherokee people, it is further
agreed that the Delegate in Congress from the Cherokee Nation may, with the
approbation of the President, annually select one youth, a native of the
nation, who shall be appointed to be enrolled at any military school that
may be established by the Confederate States, upon the same terms as other
cadets may be appointed. And the Confederate States also agree that the
same privilege shall be exercised by the Delegate from the Choctaw and
Chickasaw Nations and the Creek and Seminole Nations, respectively.

ART. LIII. A general amnesty of all past offenses against the laws of the
United States, and of the Confederate States, committed in the Indian
country before the signing of this treaty, by any member of the Cherokee
Nation, as such membership is defined by this treaty, is  hereby
declared; and all such persons, if any, whether convicted or not,
imprisoned or at large, charged with any such offense, shall receive from
the President full and free pardon, and be discharged.

ART. LIV. A general amnesty is hereby declared in the Cherokee Nation; and
all offenses and crimes committed by a member or members of the Cherokee
Nation against the nation, or against an individual or individuals, are
hereby pardoned, and this pardon and amnesty shall extend as well to
members of the nation now beyond its limits as to those now resident therein.

ART. LV. This treaty shall take effect and be obligatory upon the
contracting parties from the seventh day of October, A. D. one thousand
eight hundred and sixty-one, whenever it shall be ratified by the general
council of the Cherokee Nation and by the Provisional President and
Congress, or the President and Senate of the Confederate States; and no
amendment shall be made thereto by either, but it shall be wholly ratified
or wholly rejected.
In perpetual testimony whereof the said Albert Pike, as commissioner with
plenary powers, on the part of the Confederate States, doth now hereunto
set his hand and affix the seal of his arms, and the said principal and
assistant principal chiefs, executive councilors and special commissioners,
on the part of the Cherokee Nation, do hereunto set their hands and affix
their seals.
Thus done and interchanged in duplicate, at the place, in the year, and on
the day in the beginning hereof mentioned.

[SEAL.]

ALBERT PIKE,
Commissioner of the Confederate States to the
Indian Nations West of Arkansas.


Jno. Ross, principal chief; J. Vann, assistant chief; James Brown,
executive councilor; John Drew, executive councilor; Will. P. Ross,
executive councilor; Lewis Ross, commissioner Cherokee Nation; Thomas Pegg,
commissioner Cherokee Nation; Richard Fields, commissioner Cherokee Nation.
Signed, sealed, and delivered in presence of us.
Wm. Quesenbury, secretary to the commissioner; E. Rector, Superintendent
Indian Affairs, Confederate States; W. Warren Johnson, Geo. M. Murrell.
-----
RATIFICATION.
Resolved (two-thirds of the Congress concurring), That the Congress of the
Confederate States of America do advise and consent to the ratification of
the articles of a treaty made by Albert Pike, commissioner of Confederate
States to the Indian nations west of Arkansas, in behalf of the Confederate
States, of the one part, and the Cherokee Nation of Indians, by its
principal and assistant principal chiefs, executive councilors and
commissioners, for that purpose only, authorized and empowered, of the
other part, concluded at Tahlequah, in the Cherokee Nation, on the seventh
day of October, A. D. one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, with the
following amendments:

I. Add at the end of Article XXXV the following words, "and the Confederate
States will request the several States of the Confederacy to adopt and
enact the provisions of this article in respect to suits and proceedings in
their respective courts."
 
II. Strike out from Article XLIV the following words, "the same rights and
privileges as may be enjoyed by Delegates from any Territories of the
Confederate States to the said House of Representatives," and insert in
lieu thereof the following words, "a seat in the hall of the House of
Representatives, to propose and introduce measures for the benefit of the
said nation, and to be heard in regard thereto, and on other questions in
which the nation is particularly interested, with such other rights and
privileges as may be determined by the House of Representatives."

III. Strike out from Article XXXIII the following words, "or of a State,"
and insert in lieu thereof the following words, "or of a State, subject to
the laws of the State."

NOTE.--The foregoing amendments were subsequently concurred in and adopted
by the Cherokee Nation.

SOURCE: United States War Department. THE WAR OF THE REBELLION: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. 128 Volumes. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1880-1901.

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