Lest We Forget - African American Military History by Researcher, 
					Author and Veteran Bennie McRae, Jr.

Nat

National Archives Guide Index Vol. #1


SECTION J--PRINCIPAL MILITARY OPERATIONS BY STATE OF OKLAHOMA

In 1860 the part of the present State of Oklahoma that lies east of the 100th meridian, west from Greenwich, was included in the Indian Territory. The part of the State that lies west of the same meridian was unorganized territory that has been referred to officially as the Public Land Strip but that was long popularly known as No Man's Land. The situation indicated remained unchanged during the Civil War.
A resolution of the Confederate Congress, approved Mar. 5, 1861, authorized the appointment of a special agent to the Indian tribes west of the State of Arkansas, and an act of the Confederate Congress, approved May 21, 1861, provided "for the protection of certain Indian tribes." The full text of this act has been lost, but it offered protection to the tribes of Indians occupying the country west of Arkansas and Missouri. Through treaties made in the summer and fall of 1861 with the Indian tribes, or factions thereof, in the country west of Arkansas, the Confederate government acquired a preponderant influence in that area. Nine such treaties were made as follows:

July 10, 1861, at North Fork Village with the Creek Nation.
July 12, 1861, at North Fork Village with the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations.
Aug. 1, 1861, at Seminole Council House with the Seminole Nation.
Aug. 12, 1861, at Wichita Agency, near the False Washita River, with the Comanches and other tribes and bands.
Aug. 12, 1861, at Wichita Agency, near the False Washita River, with the Comanches of the Prairies and Staked Plain.
Oct. 2, 1861, at Park Hill with the Great Osage Tribe.
Oct. 4, 1861, at Park Hill with the Seneca Tribe and the Tribe or Confederacy of Senecas and Shawnees.
Oct. 4, 1861, at Park Hill with the Quapaw Tribe.
Oct. 7, 1861, at Tahlequah with the Cherokee Nation.

The treaty with the Cherokee Nation was ratified by the Confederate Congress on Dec. 11, 1861, and the other treaties on Dec. 20 and 21, 1861--all such ratifications being made with amendments later accepted by the Indians. The Cherokee Nation repudiated its treaty with the Confederate States in Feb. 1863. At the end of the war, the Union Army negotiated three truces with secessionist Indians of the Indian Territory as follows:

June 19, 1865, at Doaksville with secessionist Choctaws.
June 23, 1865, at Doaksville with secessionist Cherokees.
July 14, 1865, at no specified place with secessionist Chickasaws.

A preliminary treaty of peace and amity with the United States, dated Sept. 13, 1865, was signed at Fort Smith, Ark., with most of the Indians of the Indian Territory, secessionist and loyalist. Definitive treaties between the United States and the Five Civilized Nations were subsequently concluded at Washington, D.C., as follows:

Mar. 21, 1866, with the Seminole Indians.
Apr. 28, 1866, with the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations.
June 14, 1866, with the Creek Nation.
July 19, 1866, with the Cherokee Nation.

The extent of the present State of Oklahoma was included in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of Operations. Volumes covering operations in that theater cover operations in what is now Oklahoma as follows:

Trans-Mississippi Border Approach

Feb. 7-May 9, 1861. Vol. I, Ch. VIII (Serial 1).

Indexed: 1:719 (Indian T.).

May 10-Nov. 19, 1861. Vol. III (Serial 3).

No indexing of operations for Indian Territory.

Nov. 19, 1861-Apr. 10, 1862. Vol. VIII (Serial 8).

Indexed: 8:862 (Indian T.).

Apr. 10-Nov. 20, 1862. Vol. XIII (Serial 19).

Indexed: 19:1027 (Indian T.).

Nov. 20, 1862-Dec. 31, 1863. Vol. XXII (Serials 32-33).

Indexed: 32:972 (Indian T.), 990 (Missouri, Dept. of the).

Jan. 1-June 30, 1864. Vol. XXIV (Serials 61-62-63-64).

Indexed: 61:1120 (Indian T.); 62:1171 (Indian T.) (Indian T., Dist. of the); 63:879 (same).

July l-Dec. 31, 1864. Vol. XLI (Serials 83-84-85-86).

Indexed: 84:1171 (Indian T.).

Jan. 1-June 30, 1865. Vol. XLVIII (Serials 101-102).

Indexed: 101:1559 (Indian T.); 102:1403 (same).

SUPPLEMENT, Jan. 1, 1861-June 30, 1865. In Vol. LIII, Ch. LXV (Serial 111).

Indexed: 111:1124 (Indian T.).

SEE ALSO Serial 42:In606 (Indian T., operations in).


Return to Index Page

Category: Civil War | Subcategory: Indian Territory | Tags: Cherokee , Mississippi , Oklahoma , Washington , Kansas , Missouri
Related Topics / Keywords / Phrases: 1403, 1559, 1860, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, Ark, Arkansas, Army, Cherokee (Indians), Cherokee Nation, Civil War, Comanche, Creek, Fort Smith (Arkansas), GE, Indian, Indian Territory, Indians, Kansas, Maine, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, Seminole, Seminole (Indians), Seminole Indians, Territory, Wichita, Wichita (Kansas),